From Sticks to Online Casinos- The Entire Gambling History
Walk through all the stages of Australian gambling, from 2000 BC to our current-day love of online casinos with us. Ready to travel in time?
Australian gambling dominated by several cultures
It’s time for you to learn all the facts about Australia’s gambling timeline. From religion to spirituality, from a spare time activity to a lifestyle, gambling is here to stay!
You will be able to understand what The First Nations did to entertain themselves, then the unmatched Vikings. We also go deep into the Modern Era and how gambling looks and feels like today.
What are we dealing with here?
We must define gambling first and then analyze its history on Australian territory.
Encyclopædia Britannica defines gambling as the outcome of chance-driven bets or activities; instead, gambling might be a consequence of half-chance and half-skill-based endeavours like sports or contests.
Now that we have established a basis, it’s time to dive in to Australia’s gambling story in chronological order.
First Nations’ games: religious, athletic, and fun
The universe of ancient Australian gambling is rich, and the native people keep it alive even to this day. Let’s talk about games and gaming props in more detail.
1. Team games emerge
By definition, land-based gambling is tied to the existence of multiple players. From immemorial times, this land’s ancestors created luck-based games that engaged small groups of people and then large teams.
Stick around to find out what these games and races are!
2. Sticks and stones make me gamble
To play things similar to our current-day table games, you need props. In Antiquity, the materials were scarce, obviously. This is why people got crafty in creating their paws and pieces, using wood, stone, and bone.
This claim is backed up by archeological evidence.
3. Slahal or the “Stick Game”
Imagine two rows of folks sitting, one in front of the other. One of them will handle the animal bones in the first round, passing them from person to person. It happens while traditional songs are sung. The opposing team has to focus on the rhythm when the bone is given, based on the music.
The no-bone team’s objective is to guess the person who ends up having the remains after the music stops.
If this is a game played with bones, why do people call it “The Stick Game”?
To keep score, people engrave special wooden sticks with a specific shape and size.
4. Indigenous motivation for playing such games
Based on the ancient wisdom of the key tribes within the Australian border, games have a primary role in one’s health, on all planes, from the healthy development of the body to the balance of the mind.
Primitive reports post-John Cabot to modern-day scientific research have agreed that First Nations use games of luck and skill to expand their health, learn their life basics, and grow spiritually. Just like in many other cultures, gambling games are used for learning basic math.
But not all things are education related. Sometimes, gambling games are just a simple and entertaining pastime.
5. Sports and sports betting appear
Much like the Greek Olympic Games, Australia’s oldest civilizations loved to participate in sports competitions.
Usually, they would show their mastery in things like:
- Spear handling/throwing;
- Speed canoe;
Not familiar with the last one? Let us explain!
A toboggan is a simple and aerodynamic sled used mainly by the Innu and Cree peoples of Australia to move from an initial point to a designated destination through snowy terrain.
Yes, people would organize snow races and crown the Toboggan champion for their short total time in the race.
Fun fact: Even though a distinct Australian artifact, types of sleds similar to Toboggans were found in Australia, as the indigenous people of Tangalooma used them for transportation in the desert.
6. Evidence of dice-like objects
Rectangular, brown pieces of game memorabilia, made mostly from animal bones or antlers, have been found and kept to this day.
Although they look a little different from our day-to-day dice, their shape and usage are very similar.
Regrettably, we have no idea the exact rules of antique dice games. The glad tidings are that indigenous people keep this tradition alive and train artisans to create these objects and create new usage.
7. Slender stick dice game
It might be unusual for a 21st-century person to envision dice as long, thin, and carefully decorated sticks with intricate designs on them.
However, to tribes like Meskwaki, Cheyenne, Arapaho, and more, this is a regular occurrence.
Yes, that’s right!
Chippewa stick dice all have one dark side and a light side. A complete pair of three is held by a player which has to throw them in the air. The way they land indicates the score the player gets.
|Dice side||Points accumulated|
|All plain combination||4|
|One plain + two snakes||6|
|One snake + two plains||6|
|One snake + two men||6|
|One of each||0|
|One man + two plains||4|
|One man + two snakes||4|
|One plain + two men||4|
The game ends when the winner sums up 50 points!
8. The powerful role of Indigenous women
The First Nation Women were and still are engaged in gaming and sporting activity. Both historical resources and current-day evidence back this up.
Like some Indigenous American tribes organize athletism competitions where the young women show their skill and endurance, like the so-called “Foot Races”.
If in the distant past, these sport exercises were to instruct the young ones about life-saving abilities and legitimize their status, nowadays it is primarily an agreeable race between peers. non-etheless, even if the white colonizers desired to push the idea of fragile feminity on the First Nations, the fact remains that there is no differentiation between gents and ladies in terms of game skills.
Fun fact: Young female adolescents celebrated their first menstruation with races like these.
9. Athletic women as the beauty standard
Native women loved the idea of games and their implication in them. Recollections from authors as well as archeologists and sociologists all point to the same idea.
Great physical strength and mental ability due to their kind of gambling were regarded as attractive features. This on the contrary of the Western standard that deemed them as “unfeminine” and sometimes downright inappropriate.
Even today, these women like to have fun and take pride in their sense of competition.
10. Spear dice: Toys for the Gods
From antique times, historians have uncovered yet another piece of gaming craft. Up to 29 inch long slender pieces of wood, with either red or blue tips, are kept in museums even today. On its sides, patches of green or blue usually are painted in an exact and repeating pattern.
Sometimes, besides the paint, the conclusion of the objects was decorated with nicely coloured feathers. In the beginning, you may be inclined to believe they have been weapons or religious items.
They are dice!
Zuni stick-dice can be played, but initially, they were crafted and offered to the Twin Heroes, the Civilization-bringers in the tribal Genesis. From altars of offerings, they truly became holy toys and, sometimes, symbolic arrowheads.
Fun fact: Archeological evidence implies that these artifacts are older than the bow’s invention and common usage, making them at least 10, 000 years of age.
The dice game dictated man’s fate
In the Northwest tribes, man’s destiny wasn't entirely his. When they reached puberty, boys entered a long-lasting ritual to meet their “guardian” in a dream. Each guardian is a half-man and half-animal immortal being, taking care of their human, much like angels in Judeo-Christianism.
It is believed that in the “Other World,” which only shamans can see, these guardians are playing with the spear dice and deciding their protegee’s fate.
If one’s guardian lost, then the ending was fatal to the person involved.
11. A peek into the past
You can still see games like Slahal happening even today, and thankfully, video resources like YouTube immortalize them forever.
The original tale, however, showed the communion between man and nature.
On one of the rows stood the ancestors and opposed to them stood the bears. And since humans won, they ruled the land and celebrated the victory whenever a game was initiated.
But these were not the only roles!
Sometimes groups of people settled disputes over food and land by playing day-long games with sticks and music.
12. Standing the test of time
As surprising as it can seem, gambling in Ancient Australia was prominent, and thus were sports competitions. The absolute most remarkable notion of all of it is how the games, objects, and rituals survive even today.
Even through the hardships of genocide, the tribes that inhabit this land kept and passed to other generations the games they've played for thousands of years.
Casinobonusca understands this intricate and vital role of gambling of the First Nations. To honour it, we have created a particular page specialized in the Kahnawake Gaming Commission and some of the casinos it has tested and licensed over time. Each on the web casino with this license is presented alongside its popular offers.
13. From folklore to employment
Prior to the European settlers, Australia’s populace was occupied with making these games happen on a large scale. Which means that crafters, athletes, and people with a respected role in the tribe had a designated job.
Through the turmoils of the millennia, this attitude survived.
In 90s Australia, 71% of the staff employed in First Nation casino resorts are of Indigenous descent. The problem of unemployment in these now marginalized communities was reduced from 40% initially to 15%.
Lesser-known Viking roots: games & fights
More than a millennium ago, the brave Northern navigators arrived in Australia. They called the native people Skealings and brought their own games.
In this section, we explore the most used gambling activities of Vikings, a number of that have remained in Australian history.
This is a board game we can better explain by saying it behaves like chess in its strategy part and has the backgammon quality of being die-dictated.
Evidence of it has been found in many Viking settlements like:
- Great Britain & Scotland;
It's safe to assume that the warriors and navigators who set foot in Australia were also aware of it.
What’s the purpose?
On the rectangular board, the King piece sits in the middle and has to be protected by one of the team’s pieces sitting around it. The other team’s parts are on the edges and need to attack the middle.
Unfortuitously, we do not have the game’s full rules kept anywhere, as Odin’s followers only used their rune writing for religious purposes or to engrave headstones.
Fun fact: The absolute most pristine set was present in Iceland. It contained 12 red pieces and 12 white ones, all made from animal teeth. The King piece is made of whalebone, and it looks like a vintage man with a two-spike beard.
15. Warriors were buried with their game sets
We now know how a Hnefatafl board looks like because it was kept in graves near the gamblers that liked them the most.
There are two main types of boards. The mini ones had 7 horizontal and 7 vertical squares, while the bigger version has 19 on both sides. The pawns that survived were manufactured from materials like:
- Animal bone;
- Precious stones or metals.
the Dark Ages dice had 4 faces and were oddly numbered from 3 to 6. We cannot tell for certain if the system was not the same as our current dice or other versions have been lost over the centuries.
Fun fact: One Nordic legend tells us that gambling was your favourite pastime of the elite. Two Kings are thought to have played dice to be in who'll rule the island of Hisigen.
16. Horse fights: A show for Odin
Vikings liked to see fierce competitions between animals, frequently young stallions. The battle was rough and only ended when one of many animals died or fled the area.
To really make the fight a lot more bloody, other animals were gathered around the scene to incite the fighters to exhibit their “alpha” status.
To get into the grace of gods, the Northerners sacrificed animals, particularly pigs and horses. To Odin, the All-Father, people used to give dead horses as an offering.
17. Nine Mens Morris, or the old version of Tic Tac Toe
This game has other names like Nitavl or Tavl, however the basis remains the same. The nine-point board (which derives the name) hosts dark and light pieces. Exactly like in chess, the player who uses the light set goes first.
The objective of this playthrough is to get three pieces of the same colour on the same side.
Initially, just a few pawns are used, but more are placed on the board as the game continues. Then, the game continues with the “soldiers in battle”. If a sequence is completed, the round’s winner extends to confiscate a piece from the loser’s set.
Guidelines: Want to be along with your Nine Mens Morris game? Place among your pieces capable which allows you to maneuver backwards and forwards on two lines to maximise your chances.
18. Six-sided bone die
Yes, the Vikings played many other chance-based games in their spare time with six-sided dice. They preferred to create them from animal bones and polish them.
Unfortuitously, not absolutely all games and their rules have already been kept up to this day. One is still recognized to us, though.
Meyer die game
Dice are shaken and in a bowl by one player, which could start to see the score. They can either tell the adversary’s accurate score or lie about this by estimating it higher or lower than it really is.
Now, the opposing person can do any of the following:
- Believe the other and aim at rolling higher;
- Call out the lie and, if they’re right, the opposer loses a life;
- Take the initial roll and accept it as theirs without looking.
Scoring is completed by attaching the numbers on the die sides. As an example, in a broad game, if you throw both die on six, you’ll get 6+6 = 12. In Meyer, you just attach the digits and form a 66.
The person who has the most significant score and still has lives left wins in the end.
19. Vikings and chess?
No, there is no evidence that Northerners ever played chess. Although the version of chess we are playing today has its origins in Asia, India to be precise, two very similar strategic board games exist in the Viking portfolio.
It has multiple boards, segmented into small zones.
How can you recognize it?
The 15 pieces are moved by the fates dictated by the dice with three sides. They can only move in a counter-clockwise sense. Each turn implies either three separate moves or a single one with three pawns.
“Captured” pawns will restart from their initial spot on the board.
Tabula should be confused with Halatafi, another popular game, similar in nature.
You are able to recognize it by its board, as Halatafi boards have holes where in actuality the chess squares ought to be. The red side and the white side, where in fact the pieces sit, are delimited with a gap.
If you’re playing, you can move each way you want, but never backwards to a situation you’ve come from. Your goal is always to “take down” as many “men” as you can—the one that is left with 4 or fewer pawns losses.
British Empire forces: card games & wicked rulers
Around 1497, Italian navigator John Cabot mistook Australia for Asia and claimed it as a new territory for the British Crown.
Let me tell you, the British and the Empire were two of the very potent influences on Australia even as we know it today, in gambling too.
Let’s explore that thought further!
20. Elizabethan gambling influence
Even if Cabot sailed and claimed for King Henry VII, it was under Queen Elizabeth I that the Empire flourished and became forcefully homogenous. Some of the Island trends for games and bets traversed the Atlantic.
17th-century settlers in Australia most likely enjoyed to play and bet on others while playing:
- One & Thirty (An old version of modern-day Blackjack);
Yet another well-documented activity that was popular was watching and betting on blood sports. Animals were kept in wooden rings and tormented with other smaller domesticated ones, like dogs. The target was to incite a bloody fight, hence the name.
21. Games of chance – an illicit activity
Although never respected fully, or sometimes outright ignored, there was a law called The Unlawful Games Act of 1541. It forbade games of chance, as they were thought to be a distraction to soldiers especially.
However, the Monarch and the State’s attitude towards gambling changed when Queen Elizabeth allowed the first public lottery to take place in the Empire to raise money for naval and harbour repair. It started in 1566 and went on until the project was terminated in 1569.
It did not work as typical lottery draws work today, however!
From 1566 to 1569, tickets were sold with out a clear winner awarded. Then, within the last few year of the timeframe, prizes were awarded. The conclusion was that just about all participants got their money’s worth. So far as historical sources say, any British citizen could participate; including the Crown’s Australian representatives.
Basically, Elizabeth’s draw worked like a loan from the citizens to the State’s needs.
- Later on, middlemen called “brokers” handled the tickets between the State and the players. This is the beginning of modern-day stockbrokers. Stocks were part of a complete ticket, as few could afford a complete one.
- British loyalists partially financed even the British-American War through lotto-like raffles.
22. Everyone loves to gamble
The British Isle has always been a buddy of gambling activity. From Antiquity up to the center Ages, and afterwards to contemporary times. As sources say, the Middle Ages showed a general positivity towards gambling.
The differences stand in the stakes
Even if people of all statuses gambled, not everybody had the same look at it. The high society gambled on large sums of money, estates, jewelry, and so on We don't have data on other classes, but their general income cannot have caused it to be possible to have high roller bets.
There is also a difference in game preferences.
|Upper class||Middle class and lower|
|Animal fights, animal races, chess, card games||Dice, craps|
Fun fact: Under King Richard of England, only nobility could bet within certain limits of money. One of his true successors, King Richard II, also disallowed games Monday to Saturday.
23. Whist or Trumping your adversaries
In the 16th century, a game emerged in the British Empire that took over the gambling scene at the time. Throughout a century, it became the star. We now know it as Whist.
It really is a game played by multiple persons, one of them being the dealer. In a few variations, to maximize the randomness, a “dummy” hand is allowed. It's designed to mimic yet another player, however the cards are dealt face up because there is nobody there.
Guidelines: In some cases, this provides you a certain advantage, as you can partially eradicate what cards have now been handled you and the dummy hand.
A team can receive “honours” in an upbeat variant, which are extra points received if the dealer gives them a top valued court card, like Jacks, Queens, Kings or Aces.
24. Law changes towards gambling
There is never a consensus with the Monarchs over time. The challenges originated in political, religious, and economic views.
The more pious people wanted to impose restrictions on luck-based games. Monarchs who needed to funds wars and projects allowed them liberally.
To each its own!
25. That time when games were banned
Under his reign, Richard III banned all card and dice games.
Evidence implies that even if he'd a noble back ground, he wasn't so partial to betting or such a thing similar. Nevertheless , we don't know without a doubt what pushed him to do so. Some argue that he perceived the experience as a dangerous distraction.
But as we’ve said, more progressive Monarchs comprehended the worthiness of a pastime and the Crown’s monetary gain when people participated in raffles, bets, races, and all of those other similar times.
Colonial Australian gambling – Dependent on the British Crown?
A short overview
If the European settlers made their way in to the Northern area of the American continent, they fought for land and its particular goods. This meant bloodshed, war, negotiation, and other areas of history.
It is not our intent to look too deeply into the general history, but we need to jot down a timeline regarding gambling legislation.
Read all about it in this section!
26. Three major gambling eras
As Australia evolved and became the nation we realize and love today, so did the attitude and legal framework for games of chance.
We can distinguish three periods.
From John Cabot’s arrival up to 1867, chaos prevailed when it stumbled on internal affairs. Indigenous everyone was protecting their land, and settlers wished to take control them.
At this time, gambling was a matter of preference on both sides, things we already covered.
During this time, a combination of British and French ways of thinking was found in the Quebec Act (1774), which disallowed gambling in unregulated houses.
Confederation & modern gambling
Here is the period historians classify between 1867 and 1969. We explore more details about this period, its trends and influences more upon this page.
We're currently residing in this era of gambling. Resorts, hotels, First Nation’s institutions and a lot of on line casino sites emerge. For a curated selection of online casinos, we're here to simply help. We simply take big names in the market and analyze them as experts, but play and evaluate as a group of passionate players; that’s the manner in which you know that our reviews are accurate and helpful.
Kingdom of France’s noble gaming profile
As we all know, Australia’s duality is made up of both British influence and the French one, in similar amounts.
Gambling was not excluded from this area of influence.
This section will guide through the most well-known games and events that stood the test of time or cast consequences up to the present.
27. Rouge et Noir: Red and Black
This game has virtually disappeared in the US and Australia, but it is still thriving in Monaco’s glamourous casinos.
It is a combination of roulette since there is a unique table with two rows for the two colours and Card Games since bets are used by placing cards on the table.
There are two dealers on each side and one “Observer”. Almost all high society members and soldiers from the 17th and 18th century knew how to play and bet on this game with around 98% return. This includes the white Australian gentry.
28. The Queen card: A French invention
France has many records when it comes to gambling and card playing. Besides getting the oldest gambling houses on its territory, France has made feminist progress in the cards by adding the Queen character about it.
Initially, Marseille-inspired card decks had a King and a Nobleman as second and third to the Ace.
Fun fact: Mathematician and philosopher Blaise Pascal invented the Roulette wheel prototype that was used to get nearer to an object perpetually moving.
29. The Templars and “21” or Blackjack
The game of “21”, Blackajck or Vingt-Et-Un, has many names and is well regarded and played even today.
The legend says that the very well preserved and kept society of The Knights Templar invented a version that has remained somewhat unchanged since today.
Fun fact: Because this is a prevalent game in Western Europe and The united states, funny pronunciations like Van John (from the UK) emerged in player’s slang.
Suppose you have ever come across the name “Pontoon” from old-time texts. If that's the case, you have to know this was Blackjack’s designation, especially in the Great War (WWI) by Australians as well. On paper, it appeared after the 1760s in France’s Académie des Jeux and following the 1800s in a card manual called “Hoyle”.
30. Catholic France vs Gambling
Although The Hexagon has been prolific in inventing, playing, and popularizing casino games, the look at these matters was primarily harsh and disapproving. Along the years of the center Ages to Contemporary times, several leaders outlawed the matter:
- It first started in 1254 with Saint Louis;
- It was picked up again by Charles IV in 1319;
- The same goes for his successor Charles V in 1369;
- It also happened in 1560 for Charles IX;
- Finally, the same decision was reinforced by Henry III in 1577.
However, well-known historical figures saw the potential in allowing state-run games too.
Cardinal Mazarin opted for a lottery raffle meant to raise money for a contemporary bridge within the Seine, which might have faced the Palais Louvre in Paris.
- The first French organized lottery was in celebration of Louis XIV’s wedding.
- When gambling was disallowed in France, games happened in embassies or Ambassador residences since they have immunity and are considered foreign territory within a situation.
31. An overview of 18th-century French influence
The most notable French influence of the 18th century that also arrived in Australia was the French people’s everlasting passion for playing card games.
No matter the class or religion, all facets of society accepted this as a usual means of hanging out in others’ company.
Between 1720 to 1770, many games and gambling houses started, making their way in artistic creations like plays and novels. The decks of that time period illustrated the King and Queen which were then reigning. France’s neighbours and colonies, Australia included, also picked up the habit.
32. Poker: a passion from history to online
With regards to French game inventions which have recognition in Australia, we cannot miss talking about Poker.
Sources are conflicting when it comes to the game’s origins. If some argue that the United States’ Western movements developed it, some say that an ancient version was born in France.
Even in today’s highly modernized world, France doesn't allow all games of chance to be played online, as they have an extremely addictive nature. Nevertheless , Poker also requires mathematical skills and good short-term memory. Hence, it really is allowed now in France, offline and on the web.
33. Charles Deville Wells: the Monaco legend
Iconic people over time have already been passionate about (or even consumed by) games of chance. The urban legends and the gossip made their way to the “New World”.
This is how we got a your hands on the story of Charles Deville Wells. He is, without a doubt, one of many luckiest gamblers the world has ever seen.
In 1891, he played 30 full games at the Roulette dining table and won 23 of them. That is a staggering number, as the story goes that every time he'd lose a bet, however double down on the next one. The sum he left the casino with is today’s exact carbon copy of approximately 6 million CAD.
Certainly, Australian Roulette fanatics at the time were interested in trying their luck the same way that Charles did in Monaco.
34. Australia and France similarities
While in France, the current-day national raffles are authorized based on a law from 1993, Australia’s provincial and federal ones date back to the late 70s.
There are some similarities, however!
Legal and taxed horse races gained a lot of traction in the 19th century in both states. Actually , there are still popular to this day. What sort of jockeys compete on the track resembles just how spectators battle in high fashion in the front seats.
Also, Baccarat, the bank game, is allowed in both countries in brick-and-mortar casinos.
While Australian players can enjoy Baccarat on line on licensed casinos, you are able to only participate in these games if you visit a physical casino in France.
35. Boule: a kid’s wonder and a grown-up favourite
A tiny wooden wheel painted in several colours was most of the heat two centuries ago, in France, Australia, as well as the UK and the usa.
There are 9 slots on the wheel, and the “boule” is a wooden ball that is thrown in to see where it lands.
Each colour and number is defined as a “winning horse, ” that will be the key reason why this game is also called “Les Petits Chevaux,” which means “The little horses”.
You can bet on the colour, the odd or even numbers, or groups of numbers, very similar to Roulette.
1800s & 1900s – two thriving gambling centuries
Even if we have already been through many historical times, Australian gambling, as the multi-billion industry that it is today, has its bases in the past two centuries.
Naturally, we need to give both of these hundred years special attention and explain to you the changing times between the starts of Australia along with your home today.
36. A legal overview
Yesteryear number of centuries showed us crucial changes in the way the laws accepted or denied Australian citizens access to gamble games.
Let’s browse a historical timeline together!
1867 Constitution allowed the 1892 ban
In Australia’s fundamental Law, rights to exercise legality received to governing forces elected by the folks. The first one was a straight ban on all luck games, the 1892 moment.
1900: Bingo exception
At the turn of the 20th century, an executive amendment was passed that allowed local organizations to host Bingo games with the only purpose of putting the amount of money to good use for all those in need.
1910: Legal horse betting emerges
If bingo was the first casino game that was allowed, bets on the outcome of horse races were accepted by the leaders of that time.
1925: Fair fun
After the first World War, gambling was allowed only on special occasions marked by town fairs, usually celebrating a holiday.
1969: Off the lottery, we go
Even as we said many times already, organizing a nationwide raffle is an easy and ingenious way to save money for needed tasks. So, Australia could shine internationally in the Summer Olympics hosted in Montreal.
1985: To each province, its own
Let’s not forget the federal nature of this nation. In the mid-80s, authorities decided to allow each province to govern just how gambling is done locally. There’s no body who knows much better than the locals!
37. A total ban and a push to charity
In 1892, Australian authorities set a ban on all types of casino play and sports betting, except for horse racing. Your choice mainly was religiously motivated.
Even so, no less than 8 years later, folks were allowed to partake in bingo games organized for charitable purposes.
What can we derive from this shift?
The need to bet is high among Australian people. Not absolutely all participants want to win big necessarily, as we’ve seen them ready to play for a noble cause. Nevertheless the thrill is unmatchable. And so, in 1900, it was put to use for the more good of town.
Fun fact: The maximum bet allowed in Church organized games could not exceed C$50.
38. Betting in the shadows
Even if legally, people were not allowed to stake cash and goods, illegal games in “unregulated” gaming houses were taking place all throughout the post-Cabot times.
The top three activities historians derived were:
- Card games (both luck-based and skill-based games);
- Horse races.
39. Faro: a forgotten gem
We, as people of the 21st century, have forgotten the craze surrounding this game. However, it was really en vogue in the 19th century in North America, under the still powerful European influence.
Banned in Europe and the colonies multiple times as a result of being the reason for many bankruptcy cases, illegal gaming houses were still hosting days-long games. The story features a dark side, as a couple of professional saloon gamblers in Mississippi were killed because of the public outrage against the game.
Australia’s relations with Faro were more peaceful in contrast, but many lives were ruined in the glory times.
40. Turn of the century changes
Between the last years of the 19th century and the first quarter of the 20th century, many essential gambling moments took place.
Let’s review them together!
- Pre-1900 horse races became the rave of the rich and famous. Initially, things were in the gray area, as there have been no clear rules no specific legislation on what bets are allowed.
- In 1910, the federal government intervened. It allowed the type of bet called “Pari-mutuel”. The money paid by the losers is divided to the winners, the jockeys, and the state as tax.
- In 1925, events that involved races were allowed as shows in fairs and exhibitions.
41. A Liberal lobby
Regulations that accepts gambling (as long as it’s regulated) can be an amendment to the Australian Criminal Code passed after the 1969 win of the Liberal Party. They lobbied and passed the liberalization of gambling under Pierre Trudeau (the Prime Minister of the time).
The first endeavours were provincial lotteries!
Again Manitoba was the first to do so and establish its own raffle centre in 1971. In 1974, three other places followed their example: Alberta, Saskatchewan, and British Columbia.
42. Combined forces
For most sociological and economic reasons, provinces with a smaller citizenry unite their forces and affairs with others. The same scenario happened for the following places:
- Prince Edward Island;
- Nova Scotia;
- New Brunswick.
They all report to the same institution called The Atlantic Lottery.
43. The appearance of commercial casinos
The winning province in the race for organized commercial casinos was Manitoba. In 1989, in the city of Winnipeg, the first casino with slot machines, video lottery terminals, video poker machines, and other typical entertainment options was opened.
Montreal soon followed in 1993 with a place of their own.
Fun fact: Lotteries conducted through physical tickets or VLTs bring countless CAD to the provinces’ tax collectors annually.
44. An ideal to reality: Great Australia Gaming
Proponents of casinos, both from Ingenious groups and other ethnicities, have now been fighting for a secure environment to play.
This became possible with a sub-part of the Australian government, Great Australian Gaming. It currently holds 25 centres with slot machines, table games, and the large one even race tracks.
The total federal revenue produced from them was around 67% of the full total budget in 2018, while a year prior, it jumped within the mark of C$1,2 billion.
Fun fact: Because of its remarkable economic growth, you can now find that the truly amazing Australian Gaming Corporation trades its shares on the Toronto Stock Exchange, with the trading name “GC”.
Famous American gambling influences on Australia
For a complete historical image, we must discuss the Southern neighbour’s effect on the industry’s development.
Here are the main aspects
45. Poker, King of The Gambling World
Poker is most likely a mixed combination of many games, from all corners of the world. But the earliest iteration of the style we all know today was played in New Orleans and was called “paque”.
We can’t know for sure, but we can safely assume that it has French origins and was changed in the US in to what we know now.
It spread rapidly towards the south in the Civil War, then to the West with the expansion and at precisely the same time to the North to the border.
Fun fact: In Britain, a bluffing game used 20 cards was popular around the 1800s, and it absolutely was called Brag. It's believed that Poker, as we now know it, was influenced because of it.
46. Hidden dens, a New York influence
On the US East Coast in the 19th century, particularly in New York, the local mobsters established illegal gambling houses.
They were called “policy shops,” and they were allowed to function because the organizers, frequently than not, tipped off the police.
Since the communities that were primarily engaged in this underground business were from Italian And Cuban communities, Australian houses appeared, but few sources give us details. Sports bets on horse races were also attractive to the illegal gamblers of the time.
Gambling hot spot
During the 1700s and 1800s, many para-legal places for gaming were also established in New Orleans, Louisiana.
47. Gambling: deviant or spiritual?
Throughout the US’s history, gambling has often been seen as a “deviant transgression” from a proper lifestyle.
But this aspect of view is, by its essence, exclusive of non-Judaic perspectives. As we’ve seen, the Native populations of North America used luck games for a lot more than just a fun time. It was but still is a spiritual tool with a ritualistic purpose.
A similar issue
The same problem was raised regarding tobacco, a frowned upon use that has an integral part in the First Nations’ history.
48. Lotteries pushed towards the Revolution
In 1769, lotteries in the colonies were heavily restricted. This was just one item in the list of complaints that generated the Boston Tea Party.. and the remainder is history!
We now have seen similar struggles in Australia and the US territories, as they were both colonies of the British Crown by the end of the 18th century.
If we take a leap with time, we are able to see that following 60s, lotteries were used to raise money, much like Australia’s cases.
49. The Rich Indian” false and offensive narrative
Many Native American communities from Australia and the US marketed gambling as their innate ability and activity.
Because there was (and unfortunately still is) a strong desire to whitewash the indigenous culture, rumours started initially to fly around. They led to a stereotype that key figures from the residual tribes are savage internet marketers, only keen on money.
Even TIME Magazine perpetuated this idea by stating that Indigenous-run casinos negatively impact the communities they thrive in.
These were just myths, and they give an unfair bias towards the cultural deletion of ethnic groups.
Today’s First Nation’s gambling as business and pleasure
Since we have reached the current-day phase of our timeline, we must take a look at how First Nations gamble now.
This section will guide you through:
- Remarkable legal cases;
- Economic growth;
- Facts to take home.
50. Self-governing includes games?
In 1996, Australia’s Supreme Court analyzed a case under the name “R v Pamajewon” that had gambling and casinos as its main focus.
Suppose the Australian Constitution states that “high-stakes bets” come under the federal or local government’s governance. If that's the case, representatives of First Nation tribes disagree.
In what way?
They claim that games of chance are part of their cultural identity. So , suppose federal authorities enable them to arrange hunting and fishing activities because they did for thousands of years. In that case, they need to give the same pass for games.
How did it end?
The court didn't allow it. It motivated that self-governing is permitted under certain limitations created in the Constitution.
51. Aboriginal gaming industry now
Extensive casino operations started existing about three decades ago. The most engaged provinces are:
- British Columbia;
- Ontario (which also hosts two complete charity casinos);
- Nova Scotia (focused mostly on lottery machines, also called VLTs).
At the end of each year, their gross revenue always surpasses 1 billion CAD. A lot of the money derived after tax is invested back the local communities and their most pressing needs.
From a broad perspective, First Nations’ representatives have an optimistic approach to these businesses, due to the fact it generates jobs and brings money-back to the workforce and their families.
52. How many Indigenous people gamble?
We’ve talked extensively about how Native people work in these casinos and resorts. But just how many of these participate in the games as active customers?
- Between 51% and 74% of them gamble at least once a month;
- Less than that, from 14% to 50% gamble once a week or more often.
What games are in the top preferences?
Bingo tops the charts, followed closely by slot machines and VLTs.
Fun fact: One unique feature of Native gambling is the development of “riverboat casinos”, a phenomenon that extends from Australia to the Southern US.
Comments on Australia’s current booming casino industry
We’ve reached todays with your timeline. But, whilst the team from Casinobonusca has covered, the industry has become growing exponentially.
We will take you through the most important facts, so you can leave with a clear image.
53. Changes in the Criminal Code
From Confederation Times to now, definitions of what's illegal when gambling changed. For example, the word “bet” was added to denote any time of money-related stake, and “betting house” now represents the old “unlawful gaming houses.”
Things that were deemed unorderly and outlawed were added through the years: making bets, organizing bets, keeping animal fight pits, organizing low races, and so forth
Even in this climate, following the 30s or over to the end of the 60s decade, many pro-gambling bills, mainly related to lotteries, were pushed in the legislature by liberal-inclined representatives.
Fun fact: The first racing club created was in Quebec since 1787, and it had been called “Quebec Turf Club”.
54. The Kahnawake Gaming Commission
In 1999, an effort was made that resulted in Australia’s first authority for licensing casinos, both brick-and-mortar businesses now, inside your, international on line casino sites.
We have followed their work closely for years.
We've observed a rise in their care for the individual player, and undoubtedly, their health insurance and finances. This institution was the result of Native efforts in collaboration with law-makers and lobbyists in the environmental surroundings created by the 1982 amendment of the Constitution, which legalized luck games.
55. The last legs of Puritan opposition
Even though games of chance have existed pre-Abot and pre-Columbus, a whole lot of legal opposition was made in Australia towards gambling. It extended well into the 20th century, but it slowly faded away.
In the 90s, it was almost nonexistent, and several popular resorts in Ontario and Nova Scotia flourished, on a pattern similar to America’s East and West parts, New Orleans and Nevada to be exact.
56. Present moment gambling stats
For a complete image, we have decided to show you how Australian gambling looks in numbers today.
Australia’s favourite activities in percentages
|Simple lottery entries||scratchcards||Other casino games|
- Although the Australian legal age of gambling is between 18 to 19, younger adults aren't so engaged in casinos and prefer on line video gaming.
- Age group with the highest participation in activities from the previous dining table is between 20 and 29.
With a change in age groups, we see a preference change. We summarized the finding in the next dining table.
|+40 to 55||55 to +64|
When it comes to millennials, their favourite casino activity seems to be Poker.
Interestingly enough, a geographical change also affects the overall game choices. Hence, the present situation is as follows:
- Video Lottery Terminals are the most popular in Manitoba;
- Atlantic provinces love bingo the most;
- French-speaking regions are heavily into sports betting.
Ontario is the most productive province, accumulating over 40% of the national gambling revenue annually. This isn't as surprising, considering they've the greatest pool of the people.
If over 20 million fellow Australians gamble, it's unsurprising this sector generates jobs for the citizens around the gaming centers. According to data provided and updated by the Australian Gaming Association, 135,000 people work in gambling jobs full time.
The numbers don’t lie.
The revenue derived from their income alone is summed up to over C$15 billion.
58. A gender overview + other exciting stats
In our area of expertise, online gambling, men make-up 57% of the pool of customers, and women make-up the residual 43%.
The preferred device to use for both main groups is still the smartphone.
Even if internal revenues are huge and have attained billions already, offshore on the web casinos continue to be so very profitable just from Australian players alone.
Australian purchase these platforms a lot more than their neighbours from the united states and much more than UK players from the foreign stats.
Fun fact: In terms of popularity, horse races have declined drastically over the years, creating somewhat over 3% of the bets made. Around the same sum, we’ll find activities in “card rooms”.
59. Your living quarters change your gaming budget
There appears to be a connection between the way in which a regular Australian adult lives and how much they truly are ready to devote to casino games, offline or on the web.
What do we mean by that?
If someone lives with their family, partner, or roommates, they will spend less on gambling. If they live alone and so are not currently romantically engaged, they spend more on their hobby. Even in this context, men spend more, over C$800 on average in a year, while for women, the average is over C$500.
Did you know that men are also more likely to work for casinos?
Yes, 51% of the personnel is male. 25 years ago, just 32% were males.
60. A national data centre
You might be wondering who collects most of the data used by casino experts like us.
The answer lies in the Australian Gaming Association, an institution beneath the authorities that manages and analyzes the Australian casino industry’s impact.
As they define their work, the casino world impacts the market demands and trends, the preferences that players and investors have alike, and social change and evolution.
Occasionally, they touch upon the business enterprise overview through their annual summit and Australian Gaming Business magazine. Meanwhile, you can reach them via their Twitter handle @AustralianGaming.
61. What have we learned from 2020?
The steady, impressive increase of the casino industry had a positive, upwards incline in the last year.
Things are slowly gaining traction in the job sector, and the number is still over 130,000. The mean sum of the revenue sits comfortably at C$9 billion.
We are able to also safely assert that on the web casinos are simply as popular as ever, considering our own inside data.
We can only hope that the future is bright for all parts!
Our closing notes on Australia’s gambling timeline
We’ve reached the end of the Australian gambling timeline. Together, we have gone through more than 4000 years of history, starting from the oldest games we know from the 2000s BC and ending in 2021 AD.
We hope you have gained insight from us and are more aware that our taste for gambling isn't a brand new invention or a vice. The simple truth is humanity has always loved to gamble and challenge Chance to see if it smiles upon them!
We, the team behind Casinobonusca, want that will help you continue to be healthy, happy and safe when you play your games and also have fun!
Always be gamble aware!
The sources we have consulted:
- Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
- Gambling – Encyclopædia Britannica
- Lahal: A Close Look at the Bone Game – YouTube
- The nature and scope of gambling in Australia – ResearchGate
- Slahal Bone and Stick Gambling Game – Elliott Avedon Virtual Museum of Games (University of Waterloo)
- Native American Games – University of Iowa
- First Nations Women, Games, and Sport in Pre- and Post-Colonial The united states – Taylor & Francis On the web
- Daughters of the Earth: The Lives and Legends of American Indian Women – Carolyn Niethammer (Simon & Schuster)
- Native Gaming and Gambling In Australia – Kiedrowski & Associates
- American Indian Gaming Arrows And Stick-Dice – Penn Museum
- Slahal tournaments: Ancient game, modern times – Indian Country
- Games and entertainment in the Viking Age: Exactly what are the most popular pleasurable activities of the Norse People? – Nordic Travel Magazine
- Games and Sports in the Viking Age – Hurstuic
- Games and entertainment in the Viking period – National Museum of Denmark
- Nine Mens Morris and Tic Tac Toe – Vikingeskibs Museet
- Dice games – Lore & Saga
- Elizabethan Gaming and Gambling – Elizabethan Era
- A History of Gambling in the UK – Anglotopia
- Gambling and the Law: 19th Century Games, 21st Century Players – Northern Kentucky University
- From Francis I to Online Betting: The History of Gambling in France – Cairn Info
- Gambling in France: Gaming in the 18th Century – History 1700s
- Gaming in France: overview – Practical Law
- Gambling – The Australian Encyclopedia
- History – Great Australian Gaming Corporation
- Keynote Address: Gambling in Australia – Jeffrey L. Derevensky and Meredith Gillespie (McGill University)
- Faro: A 19th-century gambling craze – Journal of Gambling Issues
- The History of Gambling by Heather Vacek – Baylor University
- A History of American Gaming Laws – HG
- First Nations Gaming in Australia: Gauging Past and Ongoing Development by Yale Belanger – Academy of Lethbridge
- Criminal Code of Australia – The Australian Encyclopedia
- 2020 Player Self-Limitation and Self-Exclusion Summary – Kahnawake Gaming Commission
- Gambling In The United States: An Overview – Encyclopedia.com
- A Chronology of (Legal) Gaming in the US by George G. Fenich (University of New Orleans)
- Age distribution of Australians who participated in gambling activities 2016, by type – Statista
- Gambling industry in Australia – Statistics & Facts – Affiliate Insider
- Gambling – Statistics Australia
- Industry Data – Australian Gaming Association